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Ashland Theological Bulletin; Ashland Theological Seminary; Spring; 1968; religion; religious; periodical; Vol. I; Volume I; Introduction to a Theological Bulletin, A Philosophy of Brethren Church History, Spirit and Church, Aspects of Psalm I, Arminius and Arminianism, ASHLAND THEOLOGICAL BULLETIN Spring. 1968 CONTENTS Introduction to the Editor a Theological Bulletin 2 A Philosophy of Brethren Church Albert T. Ronk, D. D. History Spirit and Church Arthur M. Climenhaga, Aspects of Psalm 1 Bruce C. Stark, Th. D. Armini us and Arminianism Owen H. Alderfer, Ph. S. T. D. D. 8 19 25 Editorial Committee: Owen H. Alderfer, Editor Bruce C.Stark Joseph R. Shultz, Dean Vol. I No. 1 Published by Ashland Theological Seminary, Ashland, Ohio 44805. Introduction to a Theological Bulletin THE PUBLICATION of the Ashland Theological Bulletin nmrks a new step for Ashland Theological Seminary. It seems appropriate to indicate some of the plans and purposes of this venture with the presentation of the first issue. The Bulletin is designed to be the voice of Ashland Theological Selninary. As such it will seek to reflect the concerns and emphases of the Seminary. Further, the Bulletin is presented as an instrument for dialogue between the Seminary and its institutional peers, and, as well, between the Seminary and pastors, students, and interested laymen within the Ashland constituency. An additional concern is the promotion of Biblical and theological learning within the broader Seminary comnlunity. The Ashland Theological Bulletin will be published yearly in the beginning. There is the possibility of increasing the frequency of publication in the future. Much of the material for the Bulletin will come from faculty members of the Seminary; however, articles from students, alumni, and friends of the Seminary will occasionally appear in the publication. Comments and criticisms from friends of the Seminarj7 are invited. These should be addressed to the editor at the Seminary. Owen H. Alderfer, editor CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE Owen H. Alderfer is Professor of Church History at A. T. S. Arthur M. Climenhaga is bishop of the Mid-Western and Pacific Confel'ences of the Brethren in Christ Church. He serves A. T. S. as Associate Professor of Missions and Contemporary Theology. His article is summarized f, rom an address delivered at the Eighth Mennonite 'NorId Conference, Amsterdam, July 23-30, 1967. Albert T. Ronk is Brethren Church Historian and Archivist. His work The History of the BrethTen Church will be published this summer. Bruce C. Stark is P, rofessor of Hebrew and Old Testament at A. T. S. A Philosophy of Brethren Church History ALBERT T. RONK FRIENDS of the writer who were interested in his recent studies in Brethren Church history asked if the research had led to any definite conclusions about this people and movement. An historian gathers data for a factual treatise of his subject, but he cannot avoid conclusions if his work is thorough and honest. This experience of concentrating on the faith of his fathers has more deeply rooted his Brethren devotion, and confirmed it in a strong philosophical conviction. Our thought on Brethren history, as a part of general church history, is somewhat analogous to the complex of rills and rivers that carry the waters of the earth to its seas. It is obvious that each branch gathers to its embrace the character of its el1viromental source and flow. Tributarial detritus, solution and solid, mingles with the flux of the mainstream where all united rushes to join the ocean depths. Human history is a mighty moving stream. It flows in the channel of space-time continuum toward the majestic sea of eternity. Every person born of woman; every incident, movement and crisis; every superstition, tradition and philosophy; every faith and religion -all move with the stream, and each contributes to the growing mass. History is not a chain of unrelated incidents. Each unit is deeply rooed in the common setting. It is swayed by its supporting past, molded by its environmental present, and, in turn, contributes to the future then aborning. Brethren Church history was the product of a past of conlpelling posture in religious circles without which it would have never come to birth. It grew out of what it considered forbidding situations into a struggling future of faith lasting more than two hundred and sixty years. The fact that it has survived for almost three centuries gives strong evidence that it has enjoyed some measure of heaven's blessing . . We are convinced that the founders of the Brethren movement in Germany, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, were born and nurtured for action in the unfinished work of reformation. Our consideration of parenthood cannot leave God out of the equation. Ye believe that every person born into this world is here, for a definite purpose -that there is divine intervention in spermic and ovic selection, and in genic recession and dominancy. Was not some such truth veiled in Mordecai's word to Queen Esther that she had come to the Kingdom for .such a time . . ? The small group that founded the Brethren cause were earnestly seeking for a field of service and fruitful witness. They believed that the conditions in the State Churches called for reform and prayed that they might be deemed worthy to help bring it about. The extent to which they were usable to the purpose is another matter. Progress is often stalemated by human limitations or perversities. Through the history of divine-human relations even specifically chosen leaders have fallen far short of God's holy desire. Abraham and Sarah outran His plan in the birth of Ishmael; Moses presumptuously smote the rock; David's hands were too bloody to build the TempIe ; and Peter denied his Lord at the trial. Yherever the Brethren have failed in their commitment or calling, the Brethren have been at fault and not their mission. By the same token, every group achievement and personal triumph in life and deed, must be attributed to the guiding hand of Deity. The Brethren movement was born out of a mystic cloud that hovered over the ravaged and restless Palatinate of western Germany in the half-century following the Thirty Years' War. The State Churches had settled down to a cold dogmatic formalism. They revelled in the tax-supported status and legal limitation of their number. Moral and spiritual life became decadent, a state abhorrent to many of their communicants. From that type of church life many withdrew to independency and depth of heart-searching. They became known by names that somewhat identified their salient characteristics. Among them were Spiritists, Inspirationists, Anabaptists, Mennonites, Pietists, etc. There was a strong element of mysticism in all of the groups gathered from the influence of Boehme, Tauler, Arndt, and others. The civil and religious din1ate in Germany at the time contributed to the cause for the dissidents to search the records for historical facts about the ancient Church. That which they found historically agreed with the ideas born from their experiences. They held that piety must supersede prevailing profligacy in n10rals; that church and state n1ust be separate; that primitive rites were required in celebration of the sacraments; that coercion in religious practice gave way to freedom of choice; that the measure of a believer's life must be piety and Christ-likeness, and not adherence to a creed or denominational order. The group that covenanted together to seek out the doctrine and practices of the Apostolic Church and finally effected the organization in 1708 were moved by a mystic sense and testified to that inward voice, l and, that a man feels inwardly and powerfully assured by the Spirit of God.2 They were so confident in their mission that they finalized their trust with Hour good God who is love purely and impartially, can and will add by degrees what may be wanting in this or that knowledge.3 The sine qua non of Brethren mission, then, is the deep conviction that the group must bear witness to the truth by both precept and exan1ple. An instance in point is the reply of a colonial churoh father to Benjamin Franklin that the Brethren write no creed because they fear they will feel bound and confined to it, and perhaps be unwilling to receive further improvement. They found assurance for their position in the promise of Jesus that the Holy Spirit shall guide you into all the truth, and, He shall teach you all things. (John 14 :26; 16 :13.) Developing Brethren history has repeatedly confirmed to changing generations that methods of implementing their mission must meet the prevailing conditions but that truth is unchanging and eternal. The experiences of division and separation in the Brethren historical stream have largely been due to disagreements over the changing world scene and .points of denominational emphasis. When disagreements failed to be considered amicably by the leaders but grew from different viewpoints to arguments, fr0111 arguments to disputes, from disputes to controversy, and in controversy the clash of personalities, not being agreed different parties would not walk together. Political, economic, social and theological climates are bound to change, calling for reevaluation of the Church's image and posture in the world, but controversy over points of departure never settle the issues in dispute. The burden of the seeking free-spirits in the German center of Schwarzenau was knowledge of the truth -even among many who rejected participation in the organizational venture. Those who were moved, with strong philosophic motivation and were assured within that they had discovered historical truth became so grounded in the faith and practice that they passed them on to posterity with a, conviction that two and one half centuries could not dislodge. The vicissitudes of being transplanted into a new world, of ridicule and persecution, of controversy and division, and of changing philosophies of turbulent times have not moved the Brethren from their basic principles, precepts, and tenets. The scope of Brethren mission embraces both the material and the spiritual realms. The two elen1ents may become discordant, but true to the genius of creation, not inconsonant. Since spirit must function with the material in the space-time situation, each must be kept in its intentional perspective, and each must serve the other. There must be divinely acceptable balance. The application in Brethren mission is obvious in the literal and detailed observance of all the sacraments. Truth is inherently spiritual but the sacramental symbols of truth are material. The Brethren have always moved on the principle that the best '\vay to teach a lesson is by dramatization -that one picture is worth a thousand words. The danger, however, lies in practice: the luster of the truth may becon1e obscured by an overemphasis of the symbol. That it has occurred at times among the Brethren no one would deny. MisconstruaI of either truth or symbol in no way annuls them. Brethren mission further insisted that precept must find expression in action and human relations. Belief in the Lord Jesus as the great physician gave substance to James' instruction to the sick to be anointed with oil in the name of the Lord with confession of sin. Anointing the siek became a Brethren doctrine. Acceptance of Jesus' exhortation to wear not at all but to communicate with yea and nay called for rigid adherance to giving an affirmation rather than an oath. Oppo6 Spirit and Church ARTHUR M. CLIMENHAGA A WORD CONCERNING THE HOLY SPIRIT IN HIS parting counsels the Lord Jesus Christ spoke freely of the Holy Spirit. This is significant in that one of the remarkable features of His earlier ministry was His comparative silence concerning the Holy Spirit. Earlier occasions were rare when He mentioned the Spirit and then always in drcun1stances which made the reference necessary -for example, the word to Nicodemus in John 3 :15, again speaking of the power of prayer and giving of the Holy Spirit in Luke 11 :13, and warning about the blasphelny against the Holy Spirit. But now the shadow of the Cross falls over His path and in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth chapters of John Jesus speaks in the Upper Room. In a few pregnant sentences He gathers up all that can be said of the Spirit's relation to the Church, the World and God. Herein is to be found a summary statement of the doctrine of the Spirit as the Third Person of the Trinity. Three outstanding truths concerning the Spirit underline these teachings of the Christ: 1. The Spirit comes to take the place of Jesus Christ, to be to the disciples all that Christ had been and more than He wo.uld have become had He stayed with them. 2. The Holy Spirit . promised to. the disciples is the selfsame Spirit who dwelt in the Christ and was the explanation o.f His earthly life and ministry. 3. The Spirit comes to dwell in the disciples as He dwelt in Christ in order that Jesus Christ will be reproduced in the disdple thus making him what Christ would have been had He stayed on the earth and lived where that disciple lives. 1 A \VORO CONCERNING THE CHURCH Someone once spoke of history as biography writ large. Presumably he meant that to write in detail of a few leaders in any country or group is to write in essence of the history of that particular country or group. This is particularly true of sacred history. The history of the early church is a composite of sketches in more or less detail of the lives of the early disdples and especially of two outstanding leaders, the Apostles Paul and Peter. These sketches are in the final analysis the recounting of the manifestation and working of the Holy Spirit among men during the several decades following the ascension of our Lord. This working of the Spirit among men redeemed by Jesus Christ and called out from a life of sin to a life of holiness is the recorded history of the formation of the Church. The ChuI'lch then is the biography of its divinely-raised up, Holy Spirit filled and dominated disciples writ large.2 However, the Church is more than biography or history alone. It is to be understood only in terms of its genesis as a Christian Church, a body of called out ones. Historically the Church is linked with that Hebrew form, called in the Authorized Version of Acts 7 :38, the church in the wilderness. The church of the Old Testament was the first representative of the ecclesia -the, called out ones. It was indeed a community of the Spirit. Although manifested in natural and social laws, it was nevertheless a supernatural organization. As such it was the first step to the Christian Church in that it cultivated and matured that faith which finally issued in the Kingdom of God. It was the community which gave Christ to the world. The second step towards the Church was the formation by our Lord of the little flock. Here we stand midway between the Mosaic economy and Pentecost. This flock was composed of two groups -the disciples clustering around John the Baptist and the group gathering around Jesus Himself. All of these believed that Jesus was the Messiah and formed the group in that informal organization who by their love for the :Master and faith in His words were spiritually qualified to receive the gift of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost. These then were the true nucleus of the Church.3 Combining these two areas of consideration we rome to A WORD CONCERNING THE CHURCH AND SPIRIT The day of Pentecost is so closely related to the early history of the Church that we are inclined to speak of it as the birthday of the Church. W'hen we consider that the work of the Holy Spirit necessarily demanded an objective eonomy this is true. The day of Pentecost represented that new order of spiritual life on earth which, initiated by the advent of Christ, was now preserved by the perpetual indwelling of the Holy Spirit. The Church is thus the creation of the Holy Spirit. It is a community of believers who owe their spiritual life fronl the first to last to the Spirit. Apart from the Holy Spirit there can be neither Christian nor church. For this reason we declare that the Christian faith is not institutional but experimental. It is not an ordained class, neither is it merely ordinances and sacraments. It is not a fellowship of common interest in service, virtue, or culture. Membership is by spiritual birth alone with the roll of membership kept in heaven. The door to this Church is Jesus Christ. He knows those that are His and they know Him. The church membership list and the Lamb's Book of Life are not always identical. No man can say, Jesus is Lord, but in the Holy Spirit, and confession of the Lordship of Jesus Christ is the primary condition of membership in His Church. The command to tarry in Jerusalem until the enduement of power from on high proves that the one essential equipment of the Church is the gift of the Holy Spirit. Nothing else will avail for the real work of the Church. In fact, the New Testament ideal of the Church is intensely spiritual. Thus while the Church was instituted by Jesus Christ during His earthly ministry, it was constituted by the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost. The Church was a Spirit-filled, Spiritempowered, Spirit-guided, Spirit-used body of Christian believers. It grew as the Holy Spirit was active in His operations upon both individuals and society in that day. Further, the New Testament doctrine of the Church is centered in its spirituality. The Apostle Paul conceived of the Church as a social organism in which the Holy Spirit prevails. Holy Spirit is not needed. Religious services and organized institutions do not necessarily constitute a Christian Church and such may flourish without the activity of the Holy Spirit in their midst. Therefore, we are constrained to reverse the order of Church and Spirit and' turn to A \VORD CONCERNING SPIRIT AND CHURCH In the course of this presentation, we should now see where we are moving. First we stated in brief our definition of the Holy Spirit. Then we did the same for the ChUl'ch. In the wording of the third consideration, we deliberately stated it Church and Spirit. And just as deliberately now we state it Spirit and Church. For we have, come to the point of asking ourselves what happens in the life of that Church when the Spirit is in it and works in it. First of all, the Church will be a Sp£-rit-controlled Church. The work of the Spirit in the Church is set forth in the promises of Jesus on the threshold of His ascension, demonstrated in the Acts of the Apostles, and amplified in selected sections of the New Testament letters. The Gospels record All that Jesus began to do and to teach, until the day in which He was received up, and the Acts of the Apostles tell of all that He continued to do and to teach after the day in which He was received up. This He did through the Holy Spirit who is the active, administrative Agent of the glorified Son. The Holy Spirit is the Paraclete, the Deputy, the Representative, the Vicar of the Ascended Christ. His mission on which He was sent by the Father and Son is to glorify Christ by perpetuating His character, establishing His Kingdom and accomplishing His redeeming purpose in the world. Since the Church is the Body of Christ, and the Spirit is the Spirit of Christ, He -the Holy Spirit -fills the Body, directs its movements, controls its members, inspires its wisdom, supplies its strength. The Spirit guides it into the truth, sanctifies its agents and empowers, calls, distributes, controls, guides, inspires, strengthens them for witness. Thus the work of the Church is to minister in the Spirit, to speak His message, and transmit His power. The Spirit has never abdkated His authority nor will he relegate His power. The church that is man-managed instead of Spirit-governed is doomed to spiritual failure. A ministry that is theologically trained but not Spirit-filled works no miracles. It is possible to excel in mechanics and fail in dynamic. The root-trouble of the present distress is that the Church has more faith in the world and her own personal efforts than in the power of the Spirit. Things will become no better till we get back to the Spirit's realized presence and power.6 In a very practical way, then, this brings us to consideration of a Spirit-Staffed Church. Summarizing the teachings of I Corinthians 12 relative to the various offices of the Church, we note that the Lord set in the Church : First Apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then miracles, then gifts of healings, helps, governments, divers kinds of tongues. (I Cor. 12 :28) . In this same chapter in verse 11 the Holy Spirit is credited with dispensing gifts severally as He will. The gifts are enumerated as the word of wisdom, the word of knowledge, faith, healing, working of miracles, prophecy, discerning of spirits, divers tongues, interpretation of tongues. N ow here are two lists, the one pertaining to offices and the other to the gifts. Even though the lists are separate and distinct there is some evidence of overlapping. And it is evident that while the staffing of the Church is the vital concern of the Trinity, yet the staffing is accomplished through the immediate ministry of the third person of the Trinity, the Holy Spirit. Thus the words of the Apostle Paul in Ephesians 4 :11 and 12 assume importance: And he gave some to be apostles ; and some, prophets ; and some, evangelists ; and sonle, pastors and teachers ; for the perfecting of the saints, unto the work of ministering, unto the building up of the body of Christ. We do not conclude from this that a complete formula for church organization is supplied in the New Testament. The offices nlentioned both in the Acts and in the writings of the Apostle Paul appear to have been arranged for as various situations arose demanding administrative solutions. We will not suggest that the Spirit's imprimatur or particular blessing can be found on a congregational or presbyterial or episcopal form of church government. Rather, from the New Testament perspective we can lay down a principle for the guidance of. the church at all times : N ow as then, whatever the office to be filled, it is the Holy Spirit who is immediately and directly concerned. Note with interest, therefore, that in the early organization of the Church, when the need arose for the selection of members of the staff -not to preach or to conduct what was considered to be the apostolic spiritual ministry -but to provide help for timid foreign windows, seven laymen were chosen to be deacons. One of the three prerequisites for the filling of the office of deacon was the statement that those chosen should be full of the Spirit (Acts 6 :3). This is eloquent testimony to the importance of a Spirit-staffed church. What is of major import then in the development of contemporary church life ? Whatever the administrative policy of the church or whatever the technique employed in the selection of the spiritual leader of the local church, the all-important consideration is that church leaders and pastors should be appointed by the Holy Spirit. Spirit-filled pulpits is a continuing urgent need of the hour. The winning of men and women to Jesus as well as the building up· of the body of Christ is dependent on Spirit-filled pulpits. We urge that if there are any other offices belonging to more modern churchly endeavor, even though not specifically mentioned in the New Testament, such offkes must come within the category of the Spirit's staffing. The Holy Spirit is at work, ever and always at work. He is at work more markedly today through people, ordinary and extra-ordinary people. Vithout the Spirit working through the people of the Church, there is no life. In elaboration of this Dr. Oswald J. Hoffman in the Reformation Sunday sermon at the Berlin World Congress on Evangelislll so appropriately said of the Spirit in the Book of Acts, In this story Luke tells how the Spirit works by witness, reaching out to the people beyond the church through Spirit-filled people in the church. It is not a story about church organization, or about churchstate relations, or even about methods of evangelism. It is the story of how people filled with the Holy Spirit used every conceivable method to bring the Gospel to people who did not know the Lord Jesus Christ, that they might believe, be baptized and be saved. It is a story of proclamation and instruction, of how the Spirit of God uses the people of God to p, roclaim the 'Nord of God to bring to birth new children of God by the Gospel.8 A WORD CoNCERNING THE UNITY OF THE SPIRIT One of the major issues of the hour in the life of the Church is the matter of ecumenics. We are hearing so much these days about the ecumenisince God imputes the righteousness of Christ to none except believers, I conclude that ... it may be well and properly said, To a man who believes, Faith is imputed for righteousness through grace, ...15 Regeneration is closely associated with justification. Arminius declared : . . . For Christ becomes ours by faith, and we are ingrafted into Christ, ... that we may draw from him the vivifying power of the Holy Spirit, ... Justification expresses in a regenerate life in which . . . a man . . . has a mind freed from the darkness and vanity of the world, and illuminated with the .. . 16true and saving knowledge of Christ, Such experience in the life of the believer leads to a clear assurance of salvation, for, Since God promises eternal life to all who believe in Christ, it is impossible for him who believes, and who knows that he believes, to doubt of his own salvation, . .. 17 Sanctification is the desired end in the living of the Christian life. By grace God purifies man who is a sinner, and yet a believer and leads him in deeper knowledge and purer life. Arminius wrote, This sanctification is not completed in a single nl0ment ; but sin, . . . is weakened more and 1110re by daily losses, . . .18 Arminius doubted that man can ever in this life be free from tension in this regard as he wrote, ... Man is not fully and peTfectly regenerate so long as he is in the present life. This, however, must be understood, ... as relating not to the essence and essential parts of regeneration itself, but to the degree and measure of the quantity.19 Further, Arminius had serious questions about the possibility of anyone keeping the law perfectly ; whatever of progress a man makes in this direction must be credited to grace.20 In spite of these ideas Armini us insisted that justification -though not a result of work -will be productive of good works. Faith, and faith only, (though there is no faith alone without works, ) is imputed for righteousness, he wrote.21 ARMINIANISM Arminius was a prophetic figure. This is true not so much in the specific views he declared as in the spirit he represented. Irenic, tolerant, and open-minded he was the harbinger of a new climate that was coming to birth in the Western world, a spirit that would find expression in both secular and religious thought. After Arminius died (1609) friends who followed his thinking drew up a statement of beliefs, The Remonstrance' of 1610, in hope of bringing about peace in the church. These summarized Arminius' thought.22 The statements achieved an end opposite that desired. They became the core of a theological battle that ended with the Synod of Dort, 1618-1619. In this synod a strongly Calvinistic confession was adopted and the Arminians were condemned. Those rejected established a denomination which came to be known as the Remonstrant Brotherhood.23 Arminianism, though rejected at first, was shortly to gain acceptance in other places ; however, the directions it took and the ideas associated with the movement were often far removed from the views of Arminius himself. Within less than a century the Anglican Church was reflecting Arminian views in the Books of Homilies, though the Thirty-Nine Articles were firmly Calvinistic in tone.24 Primarily through these homilies Arminian thought was mediated to John Wesley, an ardent champion of Arminian thought.25 Much the same movement could be traced elsewhere. While there were those such as Wesley who represented a fairly pure Arminian thought, Arminianism in due time came to be associated with ideas far removed from those of ArAn enquiring attitude and a .:conciliatory spirit had been marks of the man ; now, enemies of Arminius came to associate every movement of free thinking and irenic disposition with Arminianism. Indeed, some of the Remonstrants did move from earlier positions to heterodox views in Christology and anthropology ; however, Arminian became a pejorative term which encompassed a host of questionable positions of the Enlightenment period. An example of this development is seen in the times of Jonathan Edwards. As pastor at Northampton in 1734 he saw in New England a spreading Arminianism, by which he meant trust in human ability and a libertarianism which led to self-confidence. His preaching of justification by faith alone and against Arminian principles was a key factor in the revival that led to the Great A wakening in New England. The clin1ate of opinion was, however, against Edwards and in favor of Arminianism. Even by Edwards' time, for the most part, Arminianism was a prevailing mood. Western man was coming to have confidence in his own abilities. The Arlninianism which Edwards feared developed and expanded in the century and one-half after his time. By the twentieth century men had forgotten Arminius, but the spirit and views he represented, as conveyed by those called Armin-ians, were a part of the mental furniture of the majority of men in the 'Vestern \vorld. IGeoffrey F. Nuttall, The Influence of Anninianism in England, in Gerald O. McCulloh, ed., Man's Faith and Freedom, the Theological Influence of Jacobus Arrninius. (New York : Abingdon Press, 1962), p. 46. 2Arminius, Declaration of Sentiments, I, 5, in The Writings of James Arminius, 3 vols., tr. by James Nichols and W. R. Bagnall (Grand Rapids, Michigan : Bake, r Book House, 1956), Vol. I, p. 250. 3Ibid., p. 247. 4Arminius, Nine Questions, I; Writings, I, p. 380. 5Arminius, Declaration of Sentiments, II ; Writings, I, pp. 251, 252. 6Arminius, Against the Thirty-one Articles, VI ; Writings, I, pp. 293 ff. 70p. Cit., VII, pp. 296 f. 8Arminius, Public Disputations, VII ; Writings, I, pp. 485, 486. 90p. Cit., XI; pp. 523, 531. l oArminius, Against the Thirty-One Articles, IV, 1; Writings, I, pp. 287, 288. l l Arminius, Ce'rta'in Articles to be Diligently Examined and Weighed; Writings, II, pp. 496, 497. 1 2Arminius, Against the Thirty-one Articles, VIII ; Writings, I, 299-301. 13 0p. Cit., XII; pp. 316-317. HArminius, Public Disputations, XVI ; Writings, I, pp. 570-574. 1 5Arminius, Declaration of Sentiments, IX ; Writings, I, pp. 263, 264. 1 6Anninius, Dissertation on Romans VII ; Writing., II, pp. 225229. 1 i Anninius, Nine Questions, VII ; Writing8, I, pp. 384, 385. 1 8Arminius, Private Disputations, XLIX, On the Sanctification of Man ; IVritings, II, pp. 119-121. 1 9Arminius, Dissertation on Romans VII ; Writings, II, p. 247. 2oAnninius, Declaration of Sentiments, VII ; fVritings, II, pp. 255, 256. 2 1 Arminius, Lette'J' to Hippolytus a CoUibus, V; W?itings, II: p. 473. 22Philip Schaff, The C1'eeds of Christendom (New Yo.rk : Harper and Brothers, 1919), Vol. III, pp. 545-549. 23 Lambertus Jacobus van Holk, From Al'llinius to Arminianism in Dutch Theology, in Gerald O. McCulloh, op. cit., pp. 28-29. HSee especially Articles X, Free-Will, and XVII, Of Predestination and Election. 25John Wesley, On God's Vineyard, in Sermons on Several Occasions (New York : Waugh and T. Mason, 1836), Vol. II, p. 389. Here Wesley declares his dependence on the Homilies ... in setting their judgment on the grand point of justification by faith, ...